Historical preview of the military veterinarian’s uniform evolution (1769 – 1914), 2 nd part

Emmanuel DUMAS*

Olivier CABRE**

*Vétérinaire en chef,
Direction centrale du service de santé des armées – Bureau « activités vétérinaires », 60 Boulevard du général Martial Valin – CS 21 623 – 75509 PARIS Cedex 15

** Vétérinaire en chef,
Cellule qualité vétérinaire, Inspection technique des services vétérinaires des armées Ilôt du Val-de-Grâce, 1 place Alphonse Laveran – 75230 Paris Cedex 05

This article presents the successive developments of the military uniforms of Army veterinary officers, from their creation in 1769 up to 1914. Initially, veterinarians wore the uniform of their unit of assignment adorned with the insignia of “maréchal des logis” (rank of sergeant). Later, in 1812, they received a distinct uniform that will know numerous modifications, from the shape and colour to the specific rank insignia. The evolution of the veterinary officers uniform highlights their rise within the military hierarchy, from lowly sergeant to the rank of General Officer, reached in 1913 with the appointment of a Veterinary Inspector position. This second part covers the period going from 1843 to 1882.

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Bull.soc.fr.hist.méd.sci.vét., 2017, 17 : 187-216

Posted in Contemporary, Militaria | Tagged , , , , | Leave a comment

The Military Laboratory of Veterinary Research, from its creation in 1919 until the armistice in 1940

Thierry BORREL*
Emmanuel DUMAS**

*Professeur agrégé de Biochimie Génie-Biologique, docteur en Histoire des Sciences, Université de Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, IUT Campus de la Doua, département Génie Biologique, 72-74 Bd Niels Bohr, et laboratoire S2HEP, La Pagode, 38 Bd Niels Bohr, 69622 Villeurbanne cedex.

**Vétérinaire en chef, Bureau « Activités vétérinaires », Direction centrale du Service de santé des armées, 60 Bd du général Martial Valin CS 21623 75509 Paris CEDEX 15 .

This article presents the foundation, life and work of the Military Laboratory of Veterinary Research (LMRV), from its creation in 1919 until the French Armistice in 1940. Only three to four military veterinarians were employed by this micro-laboratory, mainly dedicated to the study and diagnosis of equine infectious diseases. In danger of being closed, the Laboratory had to uproot several times until the Ministry of War finally decided to sustain its existence. Thus, this article aims at understanding how such a small-sized facility, appointed with limited staff, managed to survive and thrive within the economically and scientifically arduous interwar period. The first part will explore the conditions that enabled the creation, functioning and ensuing institutionalization of the LMRV as an autonomous facility. The second part will take a biographical interest in the military veterinarians who contributed to its reputation. The third and last part will be dedicated to the laboratory’s scientific and technical body of work, carried out on the biomedical field during its 20 years of activity.

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Bull.soc.fr.hist.méd.sci.vét., 2017, 17 : 129-185

Posted in Administration, Contemporary | Tagged , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

The beginnings of a Breton veterinarian: paucity of the therapeutic arsenal in 1923

François VALLAT

Docteur vétérinaire, Docteur en Histoire, 10 rue Jean Pigeon, 94220 Charenton-le-Pont, francoisvallat@hotmail.com

The bareness of his case-log in the year 1923 grants a valuable insight into the amount and type of work François UGUEN (1894-1990, graduated Lyon 1922) was providing, in his newly installed veterinary practice in Saint-Renan (Finistere). The paucity of therapeutic tools during the interwar period, as well as the prominence of equine practice in the area, are sharply highlighted by this documentation. Next, the complete accounting balance of the year 1933 is considered: it shows a clear lack of income, further supported by the disaffection and recruitment crisis then faced
by veterinary schools.

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Bull.soc.fr.hist.méd.sci.vét., 2017, 17 : 83-127

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The Kirmaier affair, or The Jewish veterinarian and the peasants

Docteur en Histoire contemporaine, Paris I
7, allée Bernadotte 92330 Sceaux

The story of a Jewish Romanian veterinarian, denounced by his colleagues and backed by the county farmers, the local and regional administrative authorities, as well as the farmers Guild, allows for an analysis of the different actors’ behavior, and their contradictions. It underlines the ambiguous stance of a peasant society struggling with a harrowing situation.

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Bull.soc.fr.hist.méd.sci.vét., 2017, 17 : 71-82

Posted in 2017, Practionners | Tagged , , , | Leave a comment

The case of rabies in Monsieur Chéri-Montigny and his dog

Nicolas BARON
Professeur agrégé d’Histoire-Géographie à Carhaix-Plouguer (Bretagne)
4 Kerroz, 29520 Châteauneuf-du-Faou

In 1878, the death of a young playwright, Chéri-Montigny, after being bitten by a rabid dog, creates a tremendous turmoil in Paris and nationwide. Indeed, an outbreak of rabies is rapidly spreading in the capital as well as the rest of the country: distinguished veterinarians come on to advise the authorities to take drastic measures against dogs, especially strays. However, despite encouraging results, these recommendations are fast neglected, and rabies wins back its lost ground.

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Bull.soc.fr.hist.méd.sci.vét., 2017, 17 : 59-69

Posted in 2017, Contagious diseases and vaccination, Dogs and cats, Modern | Leave a comment

Jean-Paul Marat the veterinarian: the story of a legend

Docteur vétérinaire, 220 rue Saint-Martin, Urville-Nacqueville, 50460 La Hague

Jean-Paul Marat (1743-1793), an authentic medical doctor, was alleged many times to have practiced the veterinary art as well. It is hereby proposed to summarize a research on the origins and the posterity of this tradition.

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Bull.soc.fr.hist.méd.sci.vét., 2017, 17 : 47-57

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Is Tuberculosis similar in one medical field and the other? The trajectory of the BCG vaccine in France, 1900-1954.

This article presents the trajectory of the BCG vaccine, used against bovine and human tuberculosis, in France, from the beginning of the 20 th century to the end of the 1950’s. It reveals how Camille Guerin, one of the vaccine co-discoverer, put his knowledge of veterinary epistemology to a decisive use toward the vaccine development, its application in veterinary medicine, and the double-legitimization process that was set up against the vaccine opponents. It also reveals the underlying reasons behind the abandon of vaccination as part of bovine tuberculosis prophylaxis, justified not by any scientific arguments, but rather by the Institut Pasteur own strategic goals concerning its post-war research and production policy.

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Bull.soc.fr.hist.méd.sci.vét., 2017, 17 : 21-45

Posted in Bovines, Contagious diseases and vaccination | Leave a comment

The Old Regime justice system, an unexpected source of education about ovine epidemic diseases. What lessons can be drawn from it in the region of haute Provence, circa 1660-1789?

Maître de conférences à l’IUT d’Aix-Marseille Université site de Digne-les-Bains, Docteur en biologie-écologie. Habilité à diriger des recherches en Histoire moderne et contemporaine

Priority must be given to manuscript sources when studying infectious animal diseases in haute Provence during the Old Regime, as opposed to the general and imprecise regulatory texts printed out by public administrations. The cattle plague (Rinderpest) of the year 1745-1746 is the only epidemic to leave a lasting record in these species. Sheep pox dominates the ovine pathology, in times of transhumance prone to create frictions between herds owners and drivers, suspected of violating basic prophylactic precautions. Sheep herds composition over time can be deduced from such documents. The communities managed the sheep pox epidemics by themselves, without any intervention from the administrative authorities.

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Bull.soc.fr.hist.méd.sci.vét., 2017, 17 : 07-20

Posted in Contagious diseases and vaccination, Sheeps and goats | Leave a comment

Creation of the European Association of Establishments for Veterinary Education (EAEVE)

Bernard TOMA

Directeur honoraire de l’École nationale vétérinaire d’Alfort
7 avenue du Général-de-Gaulle, 94700 Maisons-Alfort

The foundation meeting of the European Association of Establishments for Veterinary Education (EAEVE) took place on May 27 1988, at the initiative of the dean of the Alfort Veterinary College. This paper reviews the situation prevailing at the time of the foundation, the events that led to the creation of the association and its achievements over the first four years of activity, all geared to an exchange of information and collaboration between the teaching establishments affiliated to the EAEVE.

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Ref. : Bull.soc.fr.hist.méd.sci.vét., 2015, 15 : 209-222

Posted in 2015, Contemporary | Tagged , , | Leave a comment

A new manuscript by Bourgelat. The compelling ascent of a horseman

Bernard CLERC

Professeur honoraire des Écoles nationales vétérinaires
46 rue du Maréchal de Lattre de Tassigny, 94700 Maisons-Alfort

A new manuscript found recently is the object of this publication. It contains writings of Bourgelat on horsemanship. Examination proves it’s authentic. The copy was written during the second part of the XVIII th century, most probably between 1765 and 1779. The choice of texts which are presented show the approach of Bourgelat dissociating himself from the teaching of François Robichon de La Guérinière, famous headmaster of riding, his contemporary and his elder. The texts it contains date back to 1748 for the oldest and 1760 for the most recent one. The first text is large memoir studying the mechanics of horse paces. It was presented to the Academy of Sciences in 1760. The second text is a corpus of definitions of 12 terms concerning horse riding with comments. Similar texts were written by Bourgelat for Diderot and Alembert’s Encyclopedie. Finally, what we call the third part contains an epistolary exchange with an eminent headmaster of riding, Pierre Amable de La Pleignière. They are not unknown texts since they can be found in publications available for consultation. They testify at the same time the evolution and the innovation of Bourgelat’s writings since the Nouveau Newcastle in 1744. They show how Claude Bourgelat evolves from the academic riding study, to a larger and more scientific knowledge of horses and horse riding, leading him to his future writings on veterinary medicine.

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Ref. : Bull.soc.fr.hist.méd.sci.vét., 2015, 15 : 179-186

Posted in 2015, A-F, Biography, Horses, Modern, People | Tagged , , , , , | Leave a comment